JEWISH HISTORY AND CULTURE IN UKRAINE RESEARCH (19-20 CENTURIES)


History of the Zionist ideas in pre-revolutionary Russia and USSR (led by L. Kilimnik)
A special resea5ch on this topic was carried out by L.Kilimnik. A set of posters "History of Zionism in Eastern Europe" was prepared: History of Political Zionism, Jewish Communities of the world at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century, Forerunners of Political Zionism, Russian Jewish Community of the End of the 19th Century, First Aliyah of 1882-1903, Early Russian Zionists, Theodore Herzl and Creation of the World Zionist Organization, etc. The set of posters is designed for Jewish schools, Midrasha Tsionit, and other Jewish institutions as a manual on the course of Jewish history.

History of the Soviet Jewry (led by M. Mitsel, V. Grinevich)
This is one of the main focuses of the Institute. In 2003, preparations wer
e completed for the book of M. Mitsel “Jews of Ukraine in 1943-1953. Essays of Documented History”. In the beginning of 2004, this book was published (“Library of the Jewish Studies Institute”, Duh i Litera publishers, 2004).
Many other researchers of the Institute deal with this subject as well. First of all, they were collected in materials for the Encyclopedia “Jews of Ukraine”, articles of G. Aronov, M. Mitsel, Z. Kovba, V. Grinevich, Y. Honigsman, A. Podolsky, V. Gusev, O. Bernstein, V. Melamed, and others.

Activities of “Joint” in Ukraine in the 1920-s – 30-s (led by M. Mitsel)
The Institute posses unique archival documents and photographs on the activities of “Joint” in Ukraine during that period of time. Most of these documents were received from the archives of “Joint” in New York; there are also documents from regional archives, materials of the Jewish Studies Institute on oral history and documents from family archives. The Institute is planning special research into this topic in 2004-2005 (led by M. Mitsel). A special exhibition may be organized to show the assistance “Joint” provided to the famine victims in the 1920-s. “Joint” is known for providing help to both Jews and Gentiles during that time, saving dozens and hundreds of thousands of people.

History of the Holocaust in Ukraine (led by Y. Smelyanska, V. Pokidailo)
à) Database on the history of the Holocaust in Ukraine.
Work continued on collecting materials and creating a database. The database includes information on the following sections: documents on the Holocaust in the territory of Ukraine according to Ukrainian archives (248 items), documents on the Holocaust in Ukraine according to German archives (425 items), sites of shootings and mass burial of the Jewish population during the German occupation of Ukraine (867 items), a database of anti-Semitic articles in the periodicals of 1941-1943 in Ukraine, according to Ukrainian archives (4087 items), sites of ghettos and concentration camps during the German occupation (1043 items), documents on the Holocaust in Ukraine according to the Memorial Holocaust Museum in the United States (290 items), bibliographies of fiction and documentary books on the Holocaust in Ukraine (188 items), organizations that study the Holocaust (22 items), oral memoirs (191 items), etc. Work is being carried out jointly with the Ukrainian Center for the Study of the Holocaust (led by A. Podolsky).

b) Fates of the Jewish heritage of Galicia during the Holocaust
The objective of this project is search of information about artists, sculptors, and graphic artists who worked on the Jewish topic prior to the Second World War. Many of these artists died in the Holocaust. The research that has been carried out for over 15 years by director of this project, Galina Glembotska, has become the foundation for preparation of expert description of the works of 40 out of 400 authors; biographical materials on the others have also been collected. The Institute is planning to put out an album «Artists of Galicia and Holocaust».

History of Jewish Self-Defense in Odessa, Yekaterinoslav and other cities (led by Y. Tinchenko)
The subject of Jewish self-defense of the beginning of the 20th century has not been studied much. Yaroslav Tinchenko is exploring this topic. On the basis of the study of the documents in GPU-NKVD archives (Kiev, Odessa, Yekaterinoslav), the author has prepared a number of essays on Jewish self-defense in the regions of Ukraine. The first report on this topic was delivered by the author at the Annual Conference of the Jewish Studies Institute. The author continues his work and we hope he will write a special monograph devoted to this subject.

History of Jewish Arts in Ukraine (led by B. Kozachenko)
à) History of the «Culture League», a famous cultural and political association of Jewish artists of the 1920-s – 30-s. In 2003, as a result of research, the following has been done:
- A list of artists that worked in the Culture League has been made;
- A list of publications illustrated by the artists of the Culture League and published by the Culture League has been made;
- Collections of Culture League artists have been described that are kept at Ukrainian museums, especially at the National Museum: collections of Mark Epstein, Abram Manevich and others;
- Work continues on creating a catalogue album of the exhibition of the arts of Jewish artists in Ukrainian collections;

b) Works of Zinoviy Tolkachev (led by N. Drobyazko, Y. Shkolyarenko)
In 2003, a lot of work was done in description of the archive of artist Zinoviy Tolkachev. A significant part of his works is kept at the family archive of Tolkachev’s children. More than 3000 of his works have been described (mostly graphics). The description covers his works in the National Arts Museum of Ukraine, the Museum of History of Kiev, and the Literature Museum. Books have been collected of reviews of the artist’s exhibitions during the war «Flowers of Auschwitz» and «Maidanek», his personal documents and correspondence (including correspondence with his wife during the war – letters written in Yiddish and folded in small «triangles»), etc. The Institute has already collected the largest collection of Zinoviy Tolkachev’s documents and passed the lists of his works to the Yad Vashem Museum per its request. The Institute is preparing for publication G. Sklyarenko’s monograph «Zinoviy Tolkachev».

c) Databank “Artists of Jewish Topic in Ukraine” (Y. Shkolyarenko, B. Kozachenko)
In 2003, work continued on creation of a databank of Jewish artists in Ukraine. The databank consists of around 700 names. Apart from the already named artists of Galicia, the databank also includes the names of the artists whose works can be found in various museums of Ukraine and of modern artists who are developing the Jewish topic.

d) Works of Jewish Art in Museums of Ukraine (I, Klimova, B. Kozachenko)
Work continues on the description of the objects of Jewish arts and works of Jewish artists in the museums of Ukraine. A significant part of the collection of the National Arts Museum has been described, as well as collections of the Museums and Western and Eastern Arts (Kiev), arts museums of Nikolayev and Zhitomir, Vinnitsa and Simferopol, and the Ethnography Museum in Lvov.
These museums have the works of Mark Antokolsky, Nathan Altman, Zinoviy Tolkachev, Mark Epstein, Lazar Lisitsky (El Lisitsky), and Abram Manevich, Rafail Falk, Alexander Tyshler, David and Abram Sternberg, and others. Photographs have been made of the most significant works. A minimum catalogue has been made for each museum.

History of the Jewish Cinematograph in Ukraine (Y. Morozov)
à) The album book of Yury Morozov and Tatiana Derevyanko “Jewish Cinematographers in Ukraine in the first half of the 20th century” has been prepared for publication. The book consists of two parts: the first part contains materials on the pre-revolutionary Jewish cinematograph, while the second part contains texts and illustrations on the post-revolutionary cinematograph. The book is based upon the materials of the exhibition «Jewish Cinematographers in Ukraine. 1910-45», which was demonstrated in Kiev on the fiftieth anniversary of the Babiy Yar tragedy. The book will be published with the original decorations of Pavel Fishel. Every page of the book is decorated with quotations from newspapers, cinematographic magazines, and posters of those times. The book presents photographs of actors and directors that have practically never been published before.
b) Work continued on the film collection of the Jewish Studies Institute «Jewish Topic in the World’s Cinematograph», which numbers more than 150 films today (led by V. Pokidailo).

History of Jewish Theaters in Ukraine (N. Drobyazko)
The object of the project is collection of information on the history of the Jewish theater and plays on the Jewish topic in Russian and Ukrainian theaters of Ukraine (20th and 21st centuries). In 2003, work continued on this topic.
à) Description has been practically finished of the collection on the history of Jewish theaters of the Museum of History of Theater of Ukraine (around 40 Jewish theaters). Researchers continued to gather theatrical posters, photographs and documents on the history of Jewish theaters that worked in Ukraine in the 20th century;
b) Work was completed on preparation for the publication of Moses Losev’s book. Losev is the last director of the Jewish GOSSET theater in Ukraine who worked in Kharkov, Kiev, and Chernovtsy from 1925 through 1950. The book will be published shortly;
c) Information has been gathered on 13 Jewish theatrical groups that are currently working in Ukraine, as well as of 11 Ukrainian and Russian theaters whose repertoire contains plays on Jewish topics.

History of Jewish Yiddish Lieteratue (led by L. Drobyazko)
à) The Jewish Studies Institute has prepared for publication Chaim Beider’s book «Sketches of Jewish Writers», which was partly printed in the «Forwards» paper. The book includes more than 300 portraits of Jewish writers who lived and worked in the 20th century (most of them were Soviet authors who wrote in Yiddish);
b) Work continues on composing a reference dictionary “Jewish (Yiddish) Writers of Ukraine of 1917 – 2002», (electronic version prepared by L. Drobyazko). The dictionary contains biographic and bibliographic information on these authors (more than a hundred names). Work continues on collection, processing and systematization of the archives of the Yiddish authors who have lived in Ukraine (more than 15 archives have been collected);
c) Work continues on translating Yiddish poetry of the 20th century into Ukrainian and Russian (P. Markish, C.-N. Byalik). The author of translations is V. Boguslavskaya. In 2001, P. Markish’s book “Selected Works” was published. “Yehupets” almanac ¹ 12 (Kiev, 2003) published Chaim Hachman Byalik’s poems in Ukrainian translation.

Encyclopedia «Jews of Ukraine»
Work continues on the “Jews of Ukraine” Encyclopedia. Preparation of texts has been practically completed. All the articles have bee divided into six sections: ancient times and middle ages; Jews in the Ukrainian lands (end of XVIII – beginning of ÕÕ); First World War, revolution, and Civil War (1914 – beginning of the 1920-s); Jews in the USSR, Poland, and Roman between the two wars; Jews in Ukraine during the Second World War; the afterwar years (1945-1991), the period of official anti-Semitism. The total number of articles is 220.
Each section has been delivered for expert review. Work on the layout and collection of illustrations is coming to an end. The Encyclopedia is due to be published in the Ukrainian language in 2004.

Guidebook «Jewish Addresses of Ukraine» (led by M. Kalnitsky)
Work on the guide was terminated for a number of reasons. The guide contains of seven sections: Kiev region, Podolye, Volyn, Novorossia, Crimea, Galicia, and Bukovina. Special sections are devoted to big cities with the Jewish heritage: Kharkov, Poltava, and Chernigov. The structure of each section is the following: a review article on the region; general history of each locality; a tour route about every populated locality.
Work has been finished on preparation of the whole body of articles. Articles on the main sections have been edited – on Poltava, Zaporozhye, Kiev, Kiev region, Zhitomir, Lutsk, Uman, Podolye, Odessa, Chernovtsy, Bukovina, Kharkov, Vinnitsa, Lvov, Cherkassy, Belaya Tserkov, Boguslav, Shargorod, Khmelnitsky, Gusyatin, Satanov, and Medzhibozh.
Work on this project is due to continue in 2004.

Seminar «Jewish Funds and Materials in Archives of Ukraine»
In March 2003, the Jewish Studies Institute, the Vaad of Ukraine, and Sohnut organized a seminar for the workers of the archives of Ukraine. Workers of state archives of different cities of Ukraine and researchers of the Holocaust in Ukraine were invited to the seminar.
The seminar included roundtable discussions. The participants in the seminar discussed projects and outlined possibilities of joint activities, assistance in search for the necessary documents, and exchange of information.